Airborne Home Airborne Honey 100 years of Airborne


HMF - Additional References


References on HMF - In order of Year - 1986 onwards.
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Abdel-Aal-ESM; Ziena-HM; Youssef-MM
Adulteration of honey with high-fructose corn syrup: detection by different methods.
Food-Chemistry; 48 (2) 209-212, 18 ref. NU: ISSN: 0308-8146

Pure honey was deliberately adulterated with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at levels of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% (w/w). Sugar composition as a fingerprint was determined by HPLC for all samples. The following compositional properties were determined for pure and adulterated honey: moisture; total soluble solids; nitrogen; apparent viscosity; hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF); ash; sodium; calcium; potassium; proline; refractive index; and diastatic activity. Statistical analysis revealed that the following compositional properties were highly significantly negatively correlated with sugar composition: DM; apparent viscosity; sodium; potassium; proline: and N. Ash, calcium, HMF and moisture were highly significantly positively correlated with sugar composition for pure and adulterated honey. It is concluded that simple tests can be applied as good indicators for detecting the adulteration of honey with HFCS at adulteration levels ranging from 10 to 50%. DE: CORN-SYRUPS; ADULTERATION-; HONEYS-; FRUCTOSE-; SUGAR-SYRUPS; SUGAR-
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Andrade-PB; Amaral-MT; Cunha-AP-da; Proenca-da-Cunha-A
Modification of AOAC method for the determination of hydroxymethylfurfural in dark honeys.
Acta-Technologiae-et-Legis-Medicamenti. 1995, 6: 3, 289-293; Bc.

When the AOAC method for HMF determination was used for 40 dark (Ericaceae) honeys, an abnormal UV absorption spectrum was obtained. (Abnormal spectra can be detected by spectrophotometric scanning in a wavelength range of 240-350 nm.) This did not happen with 38 light-coloured honeys from Lavandula stoechas. The problem with the dark honeys did not occur if 5 g honey + 15 g water were treated with 0.05 g activated charcoal and then vacuum filtered before starting the AOAC analysis. The charcoal removed pigments that interfered with the absorption spectrum. The method is precise, accurate and reproducible. DE: honey-; composition-; HMF-; analytical-methods; spectroscopy- OD: Ericaceae-; Lavandula-; Lamiales-

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Bachmann-S; Meier-M; Kaenzig-A
[5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF) in foods.] 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF) in Lebensmitteln.
Lebensmittelchemie-; 51 (3) 49-50, 4 ref. NU: ISSN: 0937-1478

5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF) is an indicator of heat stress to foods during processing; its toxicological status is uncertain. 500 samples representing a wide range of potentially thermally stressed foods (including fruit juices, Madeira wine, caramel products, dried fruit, bread, cereal products, coffee, honey, baby foods and grilled meat products) were analysed for HMF. Very high HMF concn. (_1000 mg/kg or mg/l) were detected in caramel products, dark samples of dried fruit, and prune juice; many other foods had high HMF concn. The significance of high HMF concn. for food safety is discussed, together with possibilities for reduction of HMF contents of foods. DE: ALDEHYDES-; FURANS-; FOOD-SAFETY; FOODS-; CARBONYL-COMPOUNDS; HETEROCYCLIC-COMPOUNDS
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Bok-Nam-Kim; Taek-Jae-Kim; Hong-Sik-Cheigh
Minerals, HMF and vitamins of honey harvested in Kangwon area.
Journal-of-the-Korean-Society-of-Food-and-Nutrition; 23 (4) 675-679, 7 ref.

Minerals, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and vitamins in native-bee honey (NBH) and foreign-bee honey (FBH) harvested from 4 different areas of Kangwon, Korea were analysed. Ash content of NBH varied from 0.26 to 0.50% with mean and s.d. values of 0.32 plus/minus 0.17% and those of FBH varied from 0.15 to 0.58% (0.32 plus/minus 0.37). Among analysed minerals, concn. of K, Ca, Mg, Fe and P in NBH were found to be higher than those in FBH. The amounts of K and Na in NBH were 1200-3200 p.p.m. (2000 plus/minus 770 p.p.m.) and 35-50 p.p.m. (38 plus/minus 6 p.p.m.), and those in FBH were 1100-3300 p.p.m. (1900 plus/minus 1700 p.p.m.) and 32-72 p.p.m. (49 plus/minus 17 p.p.m.), respectively. Mean value of Na to K ratio expressed as Na/K x 10-3 was 20 plus/minus 4 for NBH and 41 plus/minus 25 for FBH. HMF levels in NBH were 0.50 plus/minus 0.22 mg% which was 2x as much as those in FBH. Ascorbic acid and riboflavin in NBH were present at the range of 2.2-4.0 mg% and 0.17-0.24 mg%, respectively; contents were not significantly different from those obtained from the FBH. DE: HONEYS-; KOREA-; SUGAR-

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Cosentino-S; Tuberoso-CIG; Pisano-B; Cherchi-A; Spanedda-L; Palmas-F
Influence of different storage conditions on honey quality.
Rivista-di-Scienza-dell'Alimentazione; 25 (3) 253-260, 30 ref. NU: ISSN: 0391-4887

The influence of storage conditions on the quality of Asphodel honey was investigated. Samples were stored for 24 months in the following conditions: at +4 degree C; at room temp. (18-27 degree C); or at room temp. in the dark (15-22 degree C). Several physicochemical and microbiological parameters were determined on each sample. From a physicochemical point of view, a decrease of diastase index, an increase of total acidity and HMF content, the disappearance of sucrose and stability of humidity and pH were observed at the end of the 24 months of storage. It is important to notice that the parameters determined were in line with current legislation in all the samples examined. As for microbiological analyses, the bacteria counts showed a constant decrease during the 24 months of storage in all the different conditions analysed. The microorganisms isolated were mostly yeasts and aerobic spore-forming bacteria. At the end of the experiment, the composition of the honey samples did not show relevant changes in the storage conditions investigated. Hence, a storage period of 2 yr does not seem to negatively influence the quality of this type of honey even in non-optimal storage conditions. DE: STORAGE-; TEMPERATURE-; PHYSICAL-PROPERTIES; HONEYS-; TEMP-; PHYSICOCHEMICAL-PROPERTIES; SUGAR-

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Costa-LSM; Albuquerque-MLS; Trugo-LC; Quinteiro-LMC; Barth-OM; Ribeiro-M; Maria-CAB-de
Determination of non-volatile compounds of different botanical origin Brazilian honeys.
Food-Chemistry; 65 (3) 347-352, 26 ref. NU: ISSN: 0308-8146 DT: Journal-Article

Seventy four different floral type honeys from 4 regions of Brazil (South, Southeast, Northeast and Midwest) were analysed for water, free proline, total acidity, diastase activity, fructose, glucose and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content. Mean water content varied from 17.38-19.15% (according to region); HMF content ranged from 1.70 to 38.0 mg/kg but less than 18% of samples had an HMF value greater than 15 mg/kg. It is consequently suggested that good beekeeping practices are in operation in Brazil. Proline contents varied widely (regional means, 389-520 mg/kg); this may be due to activity level dependant bee glandular secretions. Some honeys collected from Northeastern Brazil showed high diastase activity (40-120 Gothe's degrees, degree G); this may have arisen as a result of bees visiting Manhiot sp. (cassava) flour factories to collect starch-rich food. High total acidities and fructose to glucose ratios of less than 1 were found for some samples, which may have been caused by growth of xerotolerant yeasts. 82% of honey samples analysed satisfied European Codex Honey Standards and Brazilian legal regulations. DE: ACIDITY-; ALDEHYDES-; AMYLASES-; FRUCTOSE-; FURANS-; GLUCOSE-; HONEYS-; MOISTURE-CONTENT; PROLINE-; BRAZIL-; DIASTATIC-ACTIVITY; HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL-

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Deug-Chan-Lee; Sang-Young-Lee; Sang-Hoon-Cha; Yong-Soon-Choi; Hae- Ik-Rhee
Characteristics of native-bee honey harvested in Kangwon-area.
Korean-Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology; 29 (6) 1082-1088, 24 ref. NU: ISSN: 0367-6293 DT: Journal-Article

Differences between native bee honey [NBH), characterized by honey harvested from 8 different areas of the Kangwon area in Korea) and foreign bee honey [FBH), consisting of honey collected from the Chuncheon region of Korea, as well as from the USA, Australia and New Zealand) were investigated by measuring moisture content, sugar, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and pollen. Results showed that moisture contents in NBH and FBH were 16.4-23.0 and 15.8-21.0%, respectively. Sugars present in honey samples included fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose and isomaltose. HMF levels in NBH and FBH were 0.0-19.2 and 0.0-85.8 mg/kg, respectively, indicating that NBH contained much lower levels of HMF than FBH. In addition, HMF content rose during storage. Distribution of pollen in NBH was 0.4-88.3 x 10-4/g, whereas that of FBH was 0.0-0.4 x 10 -4/g. Results suggest that the methods used in this study are not suitable for identification of differences between NBH and FBH. [From En summ. & tables.] DE: ALDEHYDES-; FURANS-; HONEYS-; MOISTURE-CONTENT; SUGARS-; HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL-; KOREA-; POLLEN-

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Espinosa-Mansilla-A; Munoz-de-la-Pena-A; Salinas-F
Semiautomatic determination of furanic aldehydes in food and pharmaceutical samples by a stopped-flow injection analysis method.
Journal-of-the-AOAC-International; 76 (6) 1255-1261, 25 ref. NU: ISSN: 1060-3271

5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde (HMF) is the principal decomposition product of the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of glucose and fructose. Furfural is the principal product of pentose hydrolysis. A kinetic study of the reactions of HMF and furfural with TBA by a stopped-flow FIA spectrophotometric technique, of particular use for analysis of coloured or turbid samples, was undertaken. A semiautomatic method for the analytical determination of these furanic aldehydes is proposed on the basis of reaction with TBA. The proposed stopped-flow method was successfully applied to several commercial food samples, e.g. honey, orange juice, red grape juice and red wine. The procedure is faster than the earlier procedure for determination of these compounds in foods. Unlike the conventional continuous FIA system, the analytical signal was not affected by the colour or turbidity of the background signal. DE: ALDEHYDES-; ANALYTICAL-TECHNIQUES; FURANS-; FIA-; FOODS-; FURFURAL-; CARBONYL-COMPOUNDS; HETEROCYCLIC-COMPOUNDS UD:

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Estupinan-S; Sanjuan-E; Millan-R; Gonzalez-Cortes-MA
[Quality parameters for honey. I. Microbiological, physico-chemical and ageing characteristics.]
Alimentaria-; No. 296, 89-94, 76 ref. NU: ISSN: 0300-5755 DT: Review

A review of quality parameters of honey is presented. Aspects discussed include: microbiology of honey; physico-chemical stability parameters (pH, aw, electrical conductivity, acidity); and indicators of ageing (diastase activity, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) concn.). Honey is considered a safe product, but problems in processing, bottling and storage may lead to undesirable changes. Principal sources of microorganisms in honey are the bacterial and fungal flora deposited by bees and possible contamination during processing. Reports have shown that pH of honey should be between 3.2 and 4.5, and that aw ranges from 0.490 and 0.600. Values outside these ranges could indicate long storage time. Electrical conductivity is not affected by time but differs with botanical and geographical origin of honey. Diastase activity and HMF concn. are used as indicators of ageing. DE: HONEYS-; REVIEWS-

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Garcia-A; Valcarcel-M; Fernandez-MI; Herrero-C; Latorre-MJ; Mesas- JM
Effect of packing on the quality of honeys from Galicia.
Industria-Conserve; 69 (4) 353-357, 18 ref. NU: ISSN: 0019-7483

Most Galician honeys are marketed in the crystallized state; heating is required to keep them liquid during handling and packaging. Studies were conducted to assess changes in diastase activity and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content as a result of heating Galician honeys at 45 or 55 degree C for 3, 34 or 48 h. HMF formation and diastase inactivation increased with increasing temp. and duration of storage. Rates of formation of HMF at 45 and 55 degree C, respectively, were 0.05 and 0.31 mg kg---1 h---1. Rates of inactivation of diastase at 45 and 55 degree C were, respectively, -0.12 and -0.20 Gothe units h---1. Tolerances for HMF formation and diastase inactivation were exceeded only for honeys heated at 55 degree C for _24 h. DE: HEATING-; HONEYS-; PROCESSING-THERMAL; SUGAR-

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Ghoshdastidar-N; Chakrabarti-J
Studies on hydroxy methyl furfural formation during storage of honey.
Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology,-India; 29 (6) 399-400, 7 ref. NU: ISSN: 0022-1155

Changes in hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during honey storage and use of Fiehe and aniline chloride tests to detect low levels of HMF were studied. Usefulness of parameters such as fructose/ dextrose ratio, acidity and sensory quality as possible indices of honey deterioration is reported. A progressive increase of HMF on storage was observed, the rate of increase being greater at higher temp. Formation of HMF appeared to be autocatalytic. [From En summ.] DE: STORAGE-; ALDEHYDES-; HONEYS-; HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL-; CARBONYL- COMPOUNDS; SUGAR-______________________________

Juarez-Salomo-A; Valle-Vega-P
Hydroxymethyl-furaldehyde thermogeneration as honey quality parameter.
Tecnologia-de-Alimentos; 30 (6) 13-17, 17 ref. NU: ISSN: 0564-6758

A mathematical model was developed for thermal formation of hydroxymethylfuraldehyde (hydroxymethylfurfural, HMF) as a quality index in honey. Literature data were used as the basis for calculation of the kinetics of HMF formation in relation to temp./time parameters. Application of this model permitted prediction that the international tolerance for HMF in honey (4 mg/100 g) is reached after storage of honey for 230 days at 20 degree C. DE: ALDEHYDES-; FURANS-; HONEYS-; HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL-; MODELLING-; CARBONYL-COMPOUNDS; SUGAR-; HETEROCYCLIC-COMPOUNDS

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Kerkvliet-JD
Screening method for the determination of peroxide accumulation in honey and relation with HMF content.
Journal-of-Apicultural-Research. 1996, 35: 3-4, 110-117; Bb.

A fast semiquantitative screening procedure is described for the determination of peroxide activity in honey. Upon dilution of honey with water, hydrogen peroxide is released by the action of glucose oxidase. After 1 h incubation at 20°C, one peroxide test strip (Merck) is dipped into the honey solution for one second and the blue colour obtained is read after 15 s by means of the colour scale. The obtained value, multiplied by 5, gives the amount of hydrogen peroxide in µg/g honey per hour at 20°C. A zero value may result from heated honey or prolonged storage, by low natural enzyme content, by chemical interactions or by the action of the enzyme catalase. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) also reduces hydrogen peroxide formation. An analysis of about 500 honey samples showed that if the hourly peroxide accumulation was _10 µg/g (20°C), HMF was _40 mg/kg and/or the diastase [amylase] index was _8, with a probability of 95%. DE: honey-; composition-; hydrogen-peroxide; HMF-; amylases-; analytical-methods; analysis-; peroxides-

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Kubis-I; Ingr-I
Effects inducing changes in hydroxymethylfurfural content in honey .
Czech-Journal-of-Animal-Science; 43 (8) 379-383, 11 ref. NU: ISSN: 0044-4847

Studies were carried out on the effects of temp. (50-82 degree C) and storage on increases in hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content in honeys. In general, heating at 50 degree C gave only a low increase in HMF, while increasing heating temp. from 61 to 63 degree C significantly increased HMF content, so that some samples exceeded the limiting value. Heating at 82 degree C caused serious impairment of honey and gave an HMF content of 10x the limiting value. Not all samples exhibited identical reactions to overheating; the weakest reaction was in locust honey and the strongest in summer honey samples. Storage at 6 degree C for 12 months did not have a significant effect on HMF content of honeys . Storage at toom temp. (18 degree C) resulted in a greater increase in HMF content, but concn. found did not exceed limiting values. Individual results for locust, rapeseed and summer honeys stored for 1 yr under different combinations of heat and storage treatments are discussed. [From summ.] DE: ALDEHYDES-; FURANS-; HEATING-; HONEYS-; STORAGE-; TEMPERATURE-; HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL-; TEMP-

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Lopez-B; Latorre-MJ; Fernandez-MI; Garcia-MA; Garcia-S; Herrero-C
Chemometric classification of honeys according to their type based on quality control data.
Food-Chemistry; 55 (3) 281-287, 28 ref. NU: ISSN: 0308-8146

Pattern recognition of key components related to thermal changes in honey were used to differentiate between processed and natural honeys. 29 honey samples were analysed for humidity, ash, insoluble matter, reducing sugars, sucrose, conductivity, free and total acidity, pH, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and diastase activity. Multivariate chemometric pattern recognition tools used to classify honeys were: autoscale; feature selection; cluster analysis; principle component analysis; linear discriminant analysis; K nearest neighbour (KNN); and soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA). Using total acidity and diastase values, a nearly correct classification was achieved. DE: PHYSICAL-PROPERTIES; CLASSIFICATION-; HONEYS-; PHYSICOCHEMICAL- PROPERTIES; SUGAR-

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Lopez-B; Latorre-MJ; Fernandez-MI; Garcia-MA; Garcia-S; Herrero-C
Chemometric classification of honeys according to their type based on quality control data.
Food-Chemistry. 1996, 55: 3, 281-287; Bc.

Sixteen samples of unprocessed multifloral honey were obtained from local beekeepers and 13 processed honeys were obtained from supermarkets and other commercial sources. The 29 honeys were analysed for the following: water content, ash, insoluble matter, reducing sugars, sucrose, conductivity, free acidity, total acidity, pH, HMF and diastase activity. Multivariate statistical methods were then used to classify the honeys on the basis of these chemical data in order to assess their use in distinguishing between natural and processed honey. The methods used were between 73% and 100% accurate in predicting if a honey had been processed; the best results were obtained using only 2 variables, total acidity and diastase activity. DE: multivariate-analysis; quality-; honey-; characteristics-; processing-; classification-; statistical-analysis GE: Spain- BT: Southern-Europe; Europe; Developed-Countries; European-Union-Countries; Mediterranean-Region; OECD-Countries CC: QQ070; QQ500 CD: Other-Produce; Food-Composition-and-Quality

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Narpinder-Singh; Parminder-Kaur-Bath
Relationship between heating and hydroxymethylfurfural formation in different honey types.
Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology,-India; 35 (2) 154-156, 16 ref. NU: ISSN: 0022-1155

Second order polynomials were computed to predict the relationship between heating temp. and time on hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation in different honey types. Honey was harvested from areas where Trifolium, Brassica juncea and Eucalyptus lanceolatus constitute the major flora for collection of nectar. Samples were heated at 65, 85 and 95 degree C for 5,15 and 30 min, cooled and analysed for HMF content by AOAC methods. Results showed that the second order polynomials could be a useful tool for controlling HMF formation in different honey types. HMF formation progressively increased with increasing temp. and heating time, with values ranging from 1.7 to 42.0, 0.18 to 7.5 and 0.5 to 15 mg/100 g, respectively, for Trifolium, B. juncea and E. lanceolatus. DE: ALDEHYDES-; FURANS-; HEATING-; HONEYS-; HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL-

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Serra-Bonvehi-J
[Determination of the hydroxymethylfurfural content of honey by HPLC and UV spectrometry.]
Sciences-des-Aliments; 11 (3) 547-557, 17 ref. NU: ISSN: 0240-8813

Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed in honey as a result of heating or storage; the EEC tolerance is 40 mg/kg. Comparative studies were conducted on 2 methods for detn. of HMF in honey: UV spectrometry at 284 and 336 nm; and HPLC on a LiChrosorb RP-18 column with acetonitrile/water (10:90) mobile phase and UV detection. Trials were conducted on 2 batches of honey; some samples from each batch were pasteurized, pasteurized + held at 70 degree C for 30-60 min, and/or stored for up to 10 months at 15 degree C or for up to 8 months at 20 degree C. The HPLC method permitted separation and detn. of 7 components; the spectophotometric method did not. Recovery was slightly higher for the spectrophotometric method than for HPLC. HPLC is, however, considered superior because of its greater selectivity. The minor components detected by the HPLC technique permit differentiation of HMF increases due to heat treatment from increases due to prolonged storage. DE: ALDEHYDES-; ANALYTICAL-TECHNIQUES; HONEYS-; HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL- ; CARBONYL-COMPOUNDS; SUGAR-

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Skowronek-W; Rybak-Chmielewska-H; Szczesna-T; Pidek-A
Study of optimum conditions for slowing down the crystallization of honey.
Pszczelnicze-Zeszyty-Naukowe; 38, 75-83, 8 ref.

Effects of some crystallization-retarding factors on honey quality were studied. 5 multifloral honeys, both fresh and after liquefaction, were heated for 15 min at 60-80 degree C, filtered, cooled rapidly and stored at room temp. for _180 days. Effects of heating were established from changes in the hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content and alpha-amylase activity ( diastase number). HMF content increased with increasing heating temp., but did not exceed 1 mg/100 g honey. Amylase activity was reduced by heating, but all samples had a diastase number above the min. required level. It is concluded that a combination of appropriate heating and fine filtration would enable crystallization to be retarded by several months without any major deterioration in the quality of the honey. DE: HEATING-; CRYSTALLIZATION-; FILTRATION-; HONEYS-; SUGAR-; PROCESSING-; PROCESSING-THERMAL

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Skroekki-A; Ruottinen-L
Sugar composition, hydroxymethyl furfural concentration and diastase activity in Finnish honey.
Deutsche-Lebensmittel-Rundschau; 90 (11) 359-360, 1 ref. NU: ISSN: 0012-0413

Honey samples (50) were collected from different areas in Finland and analysed for degree of crystallization, amounts of invert sugar, glucose, fructose, and sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural concn. (HMF), and diastase activity. Average invert sugar, fructose, and glucose concn. were approx. 72%, 394 g/kg, and 324 g/kg, respectively; most samples contained less than 50 g/kg sucrose. Average HMF concn. was approx. 3.2 mg/kg honey; 2 samples contained greater than 10 mg/kg. The average diastase activity was 14.58 degree Gothe and the range was 8.2-21.1 degree Gothe. It is concluded that Finnish honey is generally of good quality. DE: HONEYS-; FINLAND-; SUGAR-

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Tien-Li-Lin; Shau-Mei-Ou-A
Quality analysis of Longan honey in Taiwan market.
Food-Science,-Taiwan; 24 (4) 479-489, 21 ref. NU: ISSN: 0253-8997

Longan honey samples (193) collected from quality contests, beekeepers and supermarkets were used as experimental materials. Qualities which included moisture, aw, soluble solids, sugars, acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), Hunter L, a, b values and diastase activity were analysed. According to the results of the sugar analysis, 37.14% of Longan honey sold in supermarkets was adulterated with sucrose and maltose. In addition, adulteration with high-fructose corn syrup was suspected based on analysis results of sugars, diastase activity, Hunter L and a values and HMF. All the samples were significantly different in quality items except Hunter a value, fructose, sucrose and maltose. The percentage of honey samples from quality contests, beekeepers and supermarkets which attained grade A level were 82.5, 43.6 and 5.7%, respectively. The quality of honey from quality contents was the best while beekeeper honey had a high moisture content problem and the majority of supermarket honey did not reach grade A. DE: HONEYS-; PHYSICAL-PROPERTIES; PHYSICOCHEMICAL-PROPERTIES

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Tilde-AC; Payawal-PC
Commercial honey in the Philippines. II. Physical and chemical properties.
Philippine-Agriculturist; 75 (1/2) 89-92, 9 ref. NU: ISSN: 0031-7454

The 72 honey samples collected throughout the Phillipines and used in the 1st part of this study [see preceding abstr.] were analysed for moisture content, reducing sugar content, diastase activity and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content. 46% of samples had a reducing sugar content below the recommended min. (65% for blossom honeys, 60% for honeydew and honeydew/blossom blends); 45% of the wild honey types and 48% of the Apis mellifera honey had a reducing sugar content less than 60%. Most of the honey standards (i.e. collected from reputable beekeepers) had a reducing sugar content which was within recommended values. Apis mellifera honey tended to have lower moisture content (15-22%) than wild honey types (16.2-33.1%). Diastase activity was generally low or lacking in wild honey types. Average and range of diastase activity were 14.02 and 5.98-31.09, respectively, in A. mellifera honeys, and 8.2 and 3.3-13.50, respectively, in the wild honey types. Most of the honey standards had diastase activity above the recommended min. level of 8. HMF content was generally high in both wild honey types and A. mellifera honeys; average values were above the recommended min. of 80 mg/kg honey. [From En summ.] DE: HONEYS-; PHILIPPINES-; SUGAR-

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Visser-FR; Allen-JM; Shaw-GJ
The effect of heat on the volatile flavour fraction from a unifloral honey.
Journal-of-Apicultural-Research; 27 (3) 175-181, 12 ref. NU: ISSN: 0021-8839

Volatile flavour compounds were isolated from Leptospermum scoparium Forst., a unifloral manuka honey, and analysed by GC and GC/MS. 29 compounds were identified. The 2 most abundant compounds were 4-methoxypropylbenzene and phenylacetaldehyde. A variety of 4-methoxyphenyl compounds were also present, and are a unique feature of this honey. 12 new compounds were identified in heated honey, the main one being 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). These compounds are formed due to heat-induced decomposition of honey sugars and can be formed at temp. as low as 50 degree C. Results suggest that furfural may be a better marker for heated honey than HMF, as it is formed at SP60 degree C, whereas HMF only becomes significant at greater than 70 degree C. DE: HEATING-; VOLATILE-COMPOUNDS; FLAVOUR-COMPOUNDS; HONEYS-; SUGAR-

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Wunderlin-DA; Pesce-SF; Ame-MV; Faye-PF
Decomposition of hydroxymethylfurfural in solution and protective effect of fructose.
Journal-of-Agricultural-and-Food-Chemistry. 1998, 46: 5, 1855-1863; 18 ref.

Time-course changes were studied for both HMF concentration and spectral curve shape during storage of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) solutions at 4-8 or 22-25°C. A significant and progressive decrease in absorbance at 284 nm was observed, with the concomitant appearance of a new band at 252 nm, both in standard HMF solutions and HMF solutions mixed with glucose, sucrose, maltose or lactose. The extent of these changes depended mainly upon the initial HMF concentration and were affected by both the storage temperature and the time between the preparation of the solution and the spectrophotometric measurement. The changes were less significant in the presence of fructose, honey or high-fructose corn syrup. The results indicate that fructose has a protective effect on HMF decomposition in solution. To avoid HMF decomposition, the solution should be kept at 4-8° and the spectrophotometric measurement should be made within 6 h after sample preparation. Honey solutions with high initial HMF concentration showed significantly lower concentrations when they were clarified by ultrafiltration, compared with the usual clarification with Carrez reagent. This may be attributed to deficient sample deproteination, which is improved either by ultrafiltration or by using a larger amount of Carrez reagent. DE: spectrophotometry-; lactose-; maltose-; sucrose-; absorbance-; honey-; fructose-; glucose-; sugars-; food-; HMF-; decomposition-; determination-

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Wunderlin-DA; Pesce-SF; Ame-MV; Faye-PF
Decomposition of hydroxymethylfurfural in solution and protective effect of fructose.
Journal-of-Agricultural-and-Food-Chemistry; 46 (5) 1855-1863, 18 ref. NU: ISSN: 0021-8561 1855

[Behaviour of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) in solution was investigated in order to contribute to knowledge of the chemical changes taking place in honey and otherfoods containing sugars. Spectrophotometric behaviour of HMF was studied in solutions containing HMF alone or mixed with glucose, glucose syrup, high-fructose syrup, fructose, saccharose, maltose, lactose, or honey (natural or supplemented with HMF).] Time-course changes were examined on both concn. and spectral curve shape of HMF in solution. A significant and progressive absorbance drop at 284 nm was observed as well as the concomitant appearance of a new band at 252 nm with standard HMF solutions and glucose, saccharose, maltose and lactose solutions. These changes depended mainly upon HMF starting concn. and were affected by both storage temp. and time between preparation of the solution and spectrophotometric measurement. There were less significant changes in honey, high-fructose corn syrup and fructose solutions. Results indicate that fructose has a protective effect on HMF decomposition in solution. It is suggestsed that spectrophotometric measurements should be made within 6 h after sample preparation and that solutions should be kept at 4-8 degree C to avoid HMF decomposition. Honey solutions with high HMF starting concn. showed significantly lower concn. when clarified by ultrafiltration, compared with the usual clarification with Carrez reagent. This could be attributed to deficient sample deprotein

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Duthil-A
Behaviour of quality indices of Cuban honey after extraction. OT: Comportamiento de algunos indicadores de calidad de mieles de abejas en Cuba despues del beneficio.
Cienca-y-Tecnica-en-la-Agricultura,-Veterinaria. 1983, 5: 2, 41-49; Ba. 1983

A total of 355 samples of Cuban honey intended for export were analysed in 1980, 1981 and 1982. Data are given for HMF concentration, diastase activity and moisture content. Mean values in 1980, 1981 and 1982 respectively were: HMF 7.85, 5.47 and 5.95 mg/kg; diastase 42.11, 47.37 and 44.76 units; moisture 18.98, 18.97 and 18.48%. All these values were within Codex Alimentarius limits. It is concluded that extraction and subsequent processing of honey in Cuba give adequate maintenance of quality, and that increases in the output of honey in Cuba over the period studied have not resulted in a loss of quality.D.G. Lowe. DE: honey-; composition- GE: Cuba- BT: Greater-Antilles; Caribbean; America CC: QQ070 CD: Other-Produce

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Han-JG; Kim-K; Kim-DY; Lee-SK
The aggregation state of melittin in lipid bilayers: an energy transfer study.
Korean-Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology. 1985, 17: 3, 155-162. 1985

The composition of various honeys from Korea and other countries, and the effects of storage temperature (4°, 20° and 50°C or 70°C/30 min 20°C) and time on diastase activity and HMF concentration were determined. Compositional data include moisture, ash, protein, P, Ca, Fe, colour, pH, sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose), and free amino acids. Results are given in tables and graphs. Average sugar concentrations in imported honeys were 40.2% fructose, 32.4% glucose and 1.1% sucrose, and correspondingly in Korean honeys 37.4, 31.9 and 0.7%. Proline was the predominant free amino acid in all the honeys (39.6-46.9% of total). Diastase activity was lost during storage, and HMF concentration increased, more so at higher temperatures.Author. DE: Honey-; composition-; sugars-; amino-acids; Extracted-honey; storage-; characteristics-; storage-decay; HMF-; alpha-glucosidase

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Kohlich-A; Krenn-H
Conformation and aggregation of melittin: effect of pH and concentration of sodium dodecyl sulphate.
Mitteilungen-Klosterneuburg-Rebe-und-Wein,-Obstbau-und-Fruchteverwertung. 1985, 35: 5, 210-217. 1985

Analyses for moisture content, HMF content, electrical conductivity, pH, acidity, lactones, invertase and diastase activities, and glucose, fructose and sucrose concentrations, were carried out on 144 Austrian honeys (34 floral, 82 floral/honeydew, 28 forest honeys). Results are tabulated, together with the results of an analysis of variance. A graph of electrical conductivity vs. pH separated the 3 types of honeys well. The 3 types also differed significantly in various other parameters. Invertase activity was considered to be a more reliable index of exposure to heat than was diastase activity. Samples of domestic (12) and foreign (17) honeys from the Austrian wholesale trade, and 83 other foreign honeys, were analysed for moisture, HMF, electrical conductivity and pH; values are compared with those of the authentic Austrian honeys. Many samples of foreign honeys purchased abroad had HMF contents >40 ppm (Austrian tolerance level). Foreign honeys from the Austrian wholesale trade had higher mean contents of moisture (18.9%) and HMF (19.9%) than Austrian honeys. Only 1 of the 144 Austrian honeys had HMF >6 ppm (1 Austrian-produced wholesale honey sample contained > 17 ppm). DE: Honey-; composition-; characteristics- GE: Austria-; Australia- BT: Central-Europe; Europe; Australasia; Oceania CC: QQ070 CD: Other-Produce PT: Journal-article UD: 950316

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Bosch-i-Callis-J; Serra-i-Bonvehi-J
Morphological studies on the obligatory parasitic mites of honey bees with a new status of the genus Varroa (Acari: Mesostigmata).
Alimentaria. 1986, 23: 175, 59-61; Bc. 1986

Honeys that had been clarified and heat-treated were obtained on the point of sale in different parts of Spain. HMF was determined regularly (by the Winkler method) in the 124 samples, which were stored for 28 months at either 14-18°C (cool area) or 17-21° (warm area). Overall, the HMF content increased by 1.7 ppm/month. After 6 months, the HMF content of samples in the cool area had increased 1.7-fold, and in the warm area it had doubled. After 18 months the mean in the cool area had doubled, and in the warm area it had increased 4.2-fold. Mean HMF content of 42 other samples stored at the processing plant increased by 1.0 ppm/month. In 18 months the HMF content doubled. P. Walker. DE: Extracted-honey; storage-; Honey-; composition- ID: 5-hydroxymethylfurfural CC: QQ070 CD: Other-Produce

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Speer-K; Montag-A
Decomposition products of phenylalanine as aroma components of honey. OT: Abbauprodukte des Phenylalanins als Aromakomponenten in Honig.
Deutsche-Lebensmittel-Rundschau. 1987, 83: 4, 103-107; Bc. 1987

A method of capillary GC with mass spectrometry was used to detect phenylalanine decomposition products in honeys from various floral sources. The presence of cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic alcohol were shown for the first time in heather honey. The following components were determined quantitatively: benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid and HMF, and results are tabulated for 4 honeys from acacia [Robinia pseudoacacia ?], 4 lime, 5 clover, 4 rape, 2 dandelion, 2 Tasmanian leatherwood, 4 chestnut and 27 heather honeys from different countries. The GC spectra obtained for the honeys can serve as 'fingerprints', showing the plant source of the honey.P. Walker. DE: Honey-; aroma-; analytical-methods; chromatography-; composition-; phenylalanine-

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Sabatier-S
Communication [on sunflower honey] from Mlle. Sylvie Sabatier. OT: Communication de Mlle. Sylvie Sabatier.
Revue-Francaise-d'Apiculture. 1988, No. 479, 491-495; Bj. 1988

Of 44 samples of sunflower honey sent by beekeepers from various parts of France (in response to published requests) half had a water content above 18%. Most samples contained more fructose than glucose; the others granulated rapidly. Mean electrical conductivity was 3.83 X 10-4 S cm. HMF content, pH, colour, and pollen content were also investigated. Chromatography (HPLC) of the phenolic fraction of sunflower honey allowed the separation of many compounds, 16 of which (11 phenolic acids and 5 flavonoids) were subsequently identified. On average, sunflower honey contained 35 mg flavonoids/kg.P. Walker. DE: Honey-; composition-; sunflowers- OD: Helianthus-annuus GE: France- BT: Helianthus; Compositae; Asterales; dicotyledons; angiosperms; Spermatophyta; plants; Western-Europe; Europe; Mediterranean-Countries CC: QQ070 CD: Other-Produce

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Salvi-G
Pollen spectra of a group of samples of commercial honeys obtained from Como and relationship with existing norms. OT: Spettro pollinico e rispondenza alle norme vigenti di un gruppo di campioni di mieli esitati sul mercato comasco.
Ape-Nostra-Amica. 1988, 10: 3, 10-13; Bj. 1988

The following details are given for 22 samples of honey purchased in Como: description, name and address of producer or supplier (not given on 4 honeys), year of production (not given on 5), origin (3 from more than 1 source, 9 Italian, 10 not given). A table of results for physico-chemical analysis shows botanical origin, % reducing sugars, % water, sucrose content, insolubles, minerals, acidity, diastase number, HMF content. All the honeys satisfied the legal requirements for water, sucrose and insolubles, but 4 contained slightly less than the norm for reducing sugars. Three samples of predominantly chestnut [Castanea] honey were slightly above the maximum limit for mineral content, and 2 honeys were high in HMF. Many of the honeys did not conform to the limits for diastase content (Schade units).D. G. Lowe. DE: Honey-; composition-; characteristics- GE: Italy- BT: Southern-Europe; Europe; Mediterranean-Countries CC: QQ070 CD: Other-Produce

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Garcia-A; Valcarcel-M; Fernandez-MI; Herrero-C; Latorre-MJ; Mesas-JM
Effect of industrial processing on the quality of Galician honeys. OT: Influencia del processo de envasado sobre la calidad de las mieles de Galicia.
Industria-Conserve. 1994, 69: 2, 353-357; Bc. 1994

Most honeys from Galicia, Spain, are crystallized, so it is necessary to liquefy them by heating during large-scale commercial processing and packing. The effect of heating these honeys at 45 and 55°C for 3, 24 and 48 h were studied by analysing their HMF content and diastase [amylase] activity. The levels of these 2 parameters still complied with Galician honey regulations after heating, except when long periods of heating at 55° were applied, when a high HMF content and a marked inactivation of diastase occurred. The hourly rate of formation of HMF was 0.05 and 0.31 mg/kg at 45° and 55°, respectively. The hourly rate of diastase inactivation at these 2 temperatures was -0.12 and -0.20 Gothe units/h, respectively. DE: honey-; heating-; composition-; amylases-; HMF- GE: Spain- ID: liquefaction

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Ricciardelli-d'-Albore-G
Characterization of honeys from the Veneto region [Italy] by quality and geographical origin. OT: Caratterizzazione dei miele del Veneto sotto il profilo della qualita e dell'origine geografica.
Annali-della-Facolta-di-Agraria,-Universita-degli-Studi-di-Perugia. 1994, 48: 457-492; Ba. 1994

During the period 1990-1993, 500 samples of honey from various provinces in this region of Italy were analysed for HMF and water content, and also for organoleptic characteristics; the results are discussed only briefly. Pollen spectra are given for unifloral honeys from Castanea sativa, Robinia pseudoacacia and Trifolium repens, and also for honey from Metcalfa pruinosa honeydew, and some spring and summer multifloral honeys. DE: honey-; honey-bee-forage; pollen-analysis; characteristics- GE: Italy- BT: Developed-Countries; European-Union-Countries; Mediterranean-Region; OECD-Countries; Southern-Europe; Europe CC: QQ070; PP720 CD: Other-Produce; Biological-Resources-Plant

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Castro-D; Vicente-I; Sevillano-E; Garcia-Arteaga-A; Torricella-R; Garcia-Roche-MO
Candying of pineapple with honey using continuous vacuum technology. 2. Study of preservation. OT: Confitado de pina con miel de abejas por la tecnologia continua al vacio: II. Estudio de conservacion.
Alimentaria. 1995, 33: 268, 85-88; Bc. 1995

The physicochemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of pineapple that had been candied using a sucrose and honey syrup (75:25) were studied during 7.5 months' storage. Potassium sorbate was used as an antifungal agent. Data are given for free reducing sugars, soluble solids, pH, free acids, water content, electrical conductivity, HMF, and organoleptic properties; microbiological analyses were also carried out. During storage, contents of HMF and reducing sugars increased but the pineapple flavour decreased and various non-characteristic flavours appeared. There was also an increase in the growth of osmophilic yeasts. The acceptable shelf-life was judged to be 6 months. DE: syrups-; sucrose-; fruit-products; honey-; uses-; pineapples-; utilization-; fruits- OD: Ananas-comosus ID: food-preservation

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Sabatini-AG; Marcazzan-GL; Colombo-R; Arculeo-P
Loquat honey produced in Sicily. OT: Il miele di nespolo del Giappone prodotto in Sicilia.
Apicoltura. 1995, No. 10, 59-69; Bj. 1995

Twenty-two samples of unifloral Eriobotrya japonica honey from the province of Palermo were analysed. Pollen analyses showed that all contained more than 45% loquat pollen, together with other pollens typical of the area. The average water content (17.4%) and HMF concentration (3.7 mg/kg) were low; fructose and glucose contents (total 67.3%) were in the medium range. Sucrose, maltose, isomaltose, erlose and melezitose were present in all samples. DE: water-content; HMF-; sugars-; honey-; composition-; characteristics-; pollen-analysis; loquats- OD: Eriobotrya-japonica GE: Italy-

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Serra-Bonvehi-J; Ventura-Coll-F
Characterization of citrus honey (Citrus spp.) produced in Spain.
Journal-of-Agricultural-and-Food-Chemistry. 1995, 43: 8, 2053-2057; Bc. 1995

Fifteen commercially produced Citrus honeys from the E coast of Spain were analysed and their pollen spectra and physicochemical properties are reported. The content of methyl anthranilate, which gives the honey its distinctive flavour, was 1.78-3.60 mg/kg; on storage, it decreased by about 9% per month. Sucrose content (9.4-16.3 g/100g) exceeded the limits laid down by the EU (5 g/100g) and the FAO/WHO (10 g/100g), and honeys had to be stored for 1-3 months for the content to decrease sufficiently. During storage, HMF increased and diastase (amylase) activity decreased. DE: sucrose-; HMF-; amylases-; storage-; honey-; pollen-analysis; composition-; characteristics- OD: Citrus- GE: Spain-

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Wen-HweiMei; Chern-JiingChuan; Chen-SuHwa; Wen-HM; Chern-JC; Chen-SH
Quality survey of commercial honey products.
Journal-of-Food-and-Drug-Analysis. 1995, 3: 4, 295-305; Bc. 1995

The 20 samples of commercial honey analysed varied widely in their composition. Water content varied from 14.7% to 23.6% and total reducing sugars from 37.8% to 81.5% (glucose 17.1-36.2%, fructose 20.7-46.8%). Niacin content was 11 ppm, but there were only trace amounts (< 2 ppm) of vitamins B1 and B2 and pantothenic acid. The contents of K, Ca and Na were 533, 59 and 28 ppm, respectively, whilst Mg, Fe and Zn were present only in trace amounts. HMF content varied widely, from 3.0 ppm to 168.4 ppm. Pollen analysis indicated that about 30% of the samples were adulterated with sugar syrups or other products. There was no contamination with coliform bacteria. About 5% of samples contained tetracycline residues. DE: water-content; sugars-; glucose-; fructose-; HMF-; vitamins-; minerals-; pollen-analysis; adulteration-; honey-; composition-; quality- GE: Taiwan- ID: tetracyline

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Bazzurro-D; Diaz-R; Sanchez-M
Characterization of honey from the butia palm (Butia capitata) during the 1995-1996 flowering in the department of Rocha. OT: Tipificacion de miel de palma butia (Butia capitata) durante la floracion de 1995-1996 en el departamento de Rocha.
1996, 29 pp.; Bdo. PB: Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de la Rupublica and PROBIDES; Rocha; Uruguay 1996

Details of pollen analyses of butia palm honeys from Rocha, Uruguay, are given and data on water content, acidity, HMF, diastase index, colour and organoleptic characteristics are also presented. Plant species of apicultural interest in this region are listed. DE: honey-; pollen-analysis; composition-; characteristics- OD: Butia-capitata; Arecaceae-; Butia- GE: Uruguay- BT: Butia; Arecaceae; Arecales; monocotyledons; angiosperms; Spermatophyta; plants; Developing-Countries; Latin-America; South-America; America; Threshold-Countries CC: LL010; QQ070; PP720 CD: Beekeeping-and-Bees; Other-Produce; Biological-Resources-Plant PT: Miscellaneous UD: 971016

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Coco-FL; Valentini-C; Novelli-V; Ceccon-L
High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of 2-furaldehyde and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde in honey.
Journal-of-Chromatography,-A. 1996, 749: 1-2, 95-102; Bc. 1996

The HPLC method described is based on the formation of the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones of carbonyl compounds and subsequent reversed-phase separation of these derivatives. Derivatization is carried out with an acidic solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine in acetonitrile. Precipitation of the derivatives of carbonyl compounds is thus avoided and direct injection of the sample into the HPLC system is allowed. The procedure offers a high specificity, since the derivatives of the title compounds are well separated from other components of the mixture under examination. Recoveries of 95-99% were obtained from honey spiked at different levels with both compounds. The detection limit is of the order of 10 µg/kg of honey and reproducibility (mean of 6 determinations) is ± 3% for 2-furaldehyde and ± 2% for HMF. DE: analytical-methods; chromatography-; honey-; composition-; HMF-

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Cosentino-S; Tuberoso-CIG; Pisano-B; Cherchi-A; Spanedda-L; Palmas-F
Influence of different storage conditions on honey quality. OT: Influenza di differenti modalita di conservazione sulla qualita del miele.
Rivista-di-Scienza-dell'Alimentazione. 1996, 25: 3, 253-260; 30 ref. 1996

Samples of asphodel honey were stored either at 4°C, at room temperature (18-27°) or at room temperature in the dark (15-22°); physicochemical and microbiological measurements were performed after 12 and 24 months. At the end of storage, all indicators determined conformed to permitted limits. During storage, sucrose had disappeared, diastase index decreased, total acidity and HMF content had increased, while pH and moisture content were unchanged. Bacterial counts consistently decreased at all temperatures; the largest counts were those of yeasts and aerobic spore-forming bacteria. Hence, even in non-optimum conditions, asphodel honey can be stored for 2 years without adverse effect on quality. DE: quality-; pH-; HMF-; acidity-; sucrose-; temperature-; storage-; honey-; alpha-glucosidase; moisture-content OD: bacteria-; yeasts-; Asphodelus-

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Piro-R; Capolongo-F; Baggio-A; Guidetti-G; Mutinelli-F
Honey storage: kinetics of hydroxymethylfurfural production and of the degradation of enzymes (diastase and invertase). OT: Conservazione del miele: cinetica di formazione dell'idrossimetilfurfurale e di degradazione degli enzimi (diastasi e invertasi).
Apicoltore-Moderno. 1996, 87: 3, 105-114; Bj. 1996

The properties of HMF, diastase (amylase) and invertase (beta-fructofuranosidase) in honey, and the effects of storage and heating on them, are discussed. Four types of honey (Robinia, Castanea, alpine multifloral and multifloral) were stored at 25, 45 or 55°C for 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks and graphs are presented to show correlations between HMF (ppm) and storage time, HMF and temperature, enzyme activity and storage temperature, and between diastase and invertase. The pH and acidity of the 4 types of honey were also determined. The use of the parameters investigated for the assessment of honey freshness is discussed. DE: honey-; acidity-; composition-; amylases-; HMF-; beta-fructofuranosidase; temperature-; effects-; storage-

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Bogdanov-S; Martin-P; Lullmann-C
Harmonised methods of the European Honey Commission.
Apidologie. 1997, Extra Issue, 59 pp.; Bj. 1997

The European Honey Commission, formed in 1990, has revised the official analytical methods for honey. The selection of methods includes all those that at the present state of knowledge are sufficient for the determination of quality. Some old methods, still widely used in routine analysis, are included, as well as some more modern ones. All the methods compiled in this publication have been published previously and, with one exception (specific rotation), have been subjected to collaborative study. Most of them have also been through the standardization procedure of the German Institute for Norms (DIN). Most of the methods can be used to determine the quality criteria for honey specified in the European or Codex Alimentarius standards. Some amendments to compositional criteria (e.g. for reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, ash content and acidity) are proposed. Standards are also proposed for some other criteria (e.g. individual sugars, electrical conductivity, invertase) which can now be determined more precisely by modern methods. The methods which are described in this publication are for the determination of moisture, electrical conductivity, ash content, pH and free acidity, HMF, diastase, sugars, insoluble matter, invertase, proline and specific rotation. DE: honey-; composition-; characteristics-; quality-; analytical-methods; standardization- GE: Europe- CC: QQ070; QQ500 CD: Other-Produce; Food-Composition-and-Quality

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Cabrera-Ruiz-C; Montilla-Gomez-J; Guerra-Hernandez-E; Molins-Marin-JL
Physico-chemical analysis of orange honeys sold in Spain. OT: Analyse physico-chimique des miels d'oranger commercialises en Espagne.
Bulletin-Technique-Apicole. 1997, 24: 2, 63-70; Bj. 1997

The 22 samples of orange honey obtained in Spain were analysed for water content, glucose, fructose, sucrose, disaccharides, trisaccharides, oligosaccharides, proline, minerals, electrical conductivity, acidity (total, free, lactone), HMF, diastase activity, and colour and clarity. Pollen analysis showed that amounts of Citrus pollen varied from 0.1% to 62% of the total; other pollens found included Eucalyptus spp., Echium plantagineum, Olea europaea, Lavandula multifida, Raphanus raphanistrum and Quercus coccifera. The 8 honeys with < 10% Citrus pollen could not be regarded as orange honey. Most samples had not been excessively heated, but the fructose:glucose ratio indicated that 8 samples were over a year old. Correlations between some parameters are described and results are compared with those obtained in previous studies. DE: honey-; pollen-analysis; characteristics-; composition- OD: Citrus- GE: Spain- BT: Rutaceae; Sapindales; dicotyledons; angiosperms; Spermatophyta; plants; Southern-Europe; Europe; Developed-Countries; European-Union-Countries; Mediterranean-Region; OECD-Countries CC: QQ070; QQ500 CD: Other-Produce; Food-Composition-and-Quality

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Esti-M; Panfili-G; Marconi-E; Trivisonno-MC
Valorization of the honeys from the Molise region through physico-chemical, organoleptic and nutritional assessment.
Food-Chemistry. 1997, 58: 1-2, 125-128; Bc. 1997

Properties and composition of 55 honey samples from this part of Italy are reported. All values were within the limits laid down in the country's regulations. High coefficients of variation were obtained for HMF content and amylase (diastase) activity and, to a lesser extent, total acidity. This result indicates variations in beekeeping methods. Wide ranges in sucrose and ash contents suggest variability in the botanical and geographical origins of the honeys. Organoleptic properties are discussed. Correct labelling, including nutritional information, is recommended, in conformity with an EC (1990) regulation; an example is given. DE: assessment-; honey-; composition-; characteristics- GE: Italy- BT: Developed-Countries; European-Union-Countries; Mediterranean-Region; OECD-Countries; Southern-Europe; Europe CC: QQ070; QQ500 CD: Other-Produce; Food-Composition-and-Quality

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Mendes-E; Proenca-EB; Ferreira-IMPLVO; Ferreira-MA; Bento-LSM
Quality evaluation of Portuguese honey.
Special issue. Gluportwo - Second International Meeting of the Portuguese Carbohydrate Chemistry Group, Porto, Portugal, 21-25 September, 1997. Carboh 1997

The quality of a total of 50 samples from 25 brands of honey commercially available on the Portuguese market was evaluated. The brands, including unifloral and multifloral honeys, were classified according to their botanical origin. Fructose, glucose, saccharose [sucrose], maltose, trehalose and melezitose contents were determined by HPLC-RI (refractive index). HMF was quantified by HPLC-UV, and other physicochemical quality parameters were evaluated according to the European and Portuguese Regulations for moisture content, ash content, diastase [alpha-glucosidase] activity, free acidity and water-insoluble solids content. All samples were also organoleptically and microscopically examined. Only 13 brands met all the major national and international specifications. DE: regulations-; honey-; Fructose-; glucose-; sucrose-; maltose-; trehalose-; melezitose-; HMF-; moisture-content; ash-; acidity-; organoleptic-traits GE: Portugal- ID: alpha-glucosidase

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Prota-R; Floris-I; Papoff-CM
Comparison of the chemical and physical characteristics of Sardinian and Corsican honeys. OT: Comparazione delle caratteristiche chimico-fisiche di mieli della Sardegna e della Corsica.
Apicoltore-Moderno. 1997, 88: 2, 51-59; Bj. 1997

Results are presented for honeys from (A) Corsica and (B) Sardinia. A consisted of 18 multifloral honeys (from Erica arborea and other species), 12 woodland honeydew honeys, 12 Castanea sativa honeys, 4 from Arbutus unedo, 3 from Citrus aurantium X deliciosa (clementine), and 3 from Asphodelus microcarpus. Honeys from B consisted of 10 A. unedo honeys, 8 A. microcarpus honeys, 8 C. sativa honeys, and 36 multifloral honeys. The following chemical and physical parameters were measured: colour, water content, pH, gluconic acid, HMF, insoluble material, diastase, free acidity, glucose:fructose ratio, ash, ethanol. Differences between the 2 islands were apparent, especially in relation to colour, water content, gluconic acid, insoluble matter and ash. DE: honey-; composition-; characteristics- GE: Italy- BT: Developed-Countries; European-Union-Countries; Mediterranean-Region; OECD-Countries; Southern-Europe; Europe CC: QQ070; QQ500 CD: Other-Produce; Food-Composition-and-Quality

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Russo-Almeida-PA
Honey of transmontane Terra Quente. Some chemical parameters of honey from transmontane Terra Quente. OT: Mel da Terra Quente transmontana. Caracterizacao de alguns parametros quimicos do mel da Terra Quente transmontana.
Apicultor. 1997, 5: 16, 29-35; Bj. 1997

Results are reported for the analysis of 31 honeys (13 multifloral and 18 unifloral lavender honeys); they include: average water content 15.9% (range 14.5-16.9%), free acids 16.5 meq/kg (11-27), pH 4.02 (3.70-4.55), ash content 0.078% (0.018-0.346%), amylase 9.3 (3-29.2), content of reducing sugars 68.5% (64.3-71.7%), sucrose content 6.1% (0.5-11.9%). HMF content varied widely and in 4 honeys the limit was exceeded. DE: honey-; composition- OD: Lavandula-; Lamiales- GE: Portugal- BT: Lamiaceae; dicotyledons; angiosperms; Spermatophyta; plants; Mediterranean-Region; Developed-Countries; EFTA; European-Union-Countries; OECD-Countries; Southern-Europe; Europe CC: QQ070; QQ500 CD: Other-Produce; Food-Composition-and-Quality

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Singh-N; Bath-PK
Quality evaluation of different types of Indian honey.
Food-Chemistry. 1997, 58: 1-2, 129-133; Bc. 1997

Physicochemical properties are reported for samples of (A) Trifolium spp. honey, (B) Brassica juncea honey and (C) Eucalyptus lanceolatus honey, taken from hives. C had the highest lactone content (21.5 meq/kg) and the highest electrical conductivity (1.04 ohms). A had the highest diastase number (32.5) and B the lowest (8.5). When the honeys were kept at 65°C HMF formation in A was 30 times faster, and in C 12 times faster, than in B; at 95° the rates were 6 and 2 times faster, respectively. The flow behaviour of the honeys was also investigated and results are reported. DE: honey-; characteristics-; composition- OD: Trifolium-; Brassica-; Eucalyptus- GE: India- BT: Papilionoideae; Fabaceae; Fabales; dicotyledons; angiosperms; Spermatophyta; plants; Brassicaceae; Capparidales; Myrtaceae; Myrtales; South-Asia; Asia; Commonwealth-of-Nations; Developing-Countries CC: QQ070; QQ500 CD: Other-Produce; Food-Composition-and-Quality

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Thrasyvoulou-A
Heating times for Greek honeys.
Melissokomiki-Epitheorisi. 1997, 11: 2, 79-80; Bj. 1997

A high percentage of Greek honeys bought from shops (17%) had HMF contents > 40 ppm. As HMF increases with heating procedure, the 'safe' heating time for each of 5 types of Greek honey was determined. All types of honey were heated at 50°, 60°, 70°, 80° and 90° C for various times till HMF contents of each sample reached 40 ppm. HMF contents increased very slowly when all types of honey tested were heated at low temperatures (50-60°): for HMF to reach 40 ppm at 60°, 35 h of heating were needed for pine-tree honey, 134 h for fir-tree honey, 373 h for Castanea honey, 29 h for sunflower honey and 34 h for cotton-plant honey; when honey was heated at 90°, 2 h were needed for pine-tree honey, 5 h for fir-tree honey, 8 h for Castanea honey, 2 h for sunflower honey and 1 h for cotton-plant honey. Different types of honey had different sensitivities to heating, with fir-tree and Castanea honeys being the least sensitive. DE: honey-; composition-; HMF-; types-; heating- GE: Greece-

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Yazbeck-R
The new specifications of honey to be admitted in the Arab countries.
Poultry:-Middle-East-and-North-Africa. 1997, No. 133, 68, 87; Bc. 1997

Analyses of pollens, HMF, diastase [amylase] and saccarase [sucrase] should be made in order to prevent fraud by adulteration. DE: adulteration-; quality-; honey-; composition-; imports-; testing-; detection- GE: Arab-countries CC: QQ070; QQ500; ZZ700 CD: Other-Produce; Food-Composition-and-Quality; Forensic-Science

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Bhandari-BR; Datta-N; D'-Arcy-BR; Rintoul-GB
Co-crystallization of honey with sucrose.
Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft-and-Technologie. 1998, 31: 2, 138-142; 20 ref. 1998

Syrups comprising 300 g sucrose and 50 g water were heated at 128°C with continuous agitation until slight turbidity indicated that spontaneous nucleation had begun, then known amounts of honey (82% solids; 10, 15 or 20% of the sucrose + honey) at 20° were rapidly added with vigorous agitation and cooling to <60°, so that rapid crystallization to agglomerates occurred. The 1st 2 sucrose:honey ratios gave granular co-crystals, which were fairly free-flowing (angle of repose 38.5-39.5°) and had similar flavour to the original honey; the 80:20 ratio gave a pasty semi-solid product. Gas chromatography indicated some minor quantitative differences between product and honey with regard to flavour volatiles: amounts of 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (10-13 ppm) and 3-hydroxy-4-phenylbutan-2-one (1.1-1.3 ppm) showed insignificant increases, whereas 6-methylheptyl prop-2-enoate increased from 1.2 to >9 ppm and HMF increased significantly (from 10.5 to 25 ppm) only for ratio 90:10. DE: crystals-; crystallization-; agitation-; flavour-; honey-; sucrose-; encapsulation-; volatile-compounds; sugar-products; chemical-composition

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Estupinan-S; Sanjuan-E; Millan-R; Gonzalez-Cortes-MA
Quality parameters of honey: 1. Microbiology, physicochemical characteristics and oldness: review. OT: Parametros de calidad de la miel: 1. Microbiologia, caracteres fisico-quimicos y de envejecimiento: revision.
Alimentaria. 1998, No. 296, 89-94; 76 ref. 1998

A review is given of some honey quality parameters, including (1) studies on its microbiology (with some aspects of antimicrobial components), (2) physicochemical indices of stability: pH, water activity (with revision of the calculation by means of predictive equations), electric conductivity and types of acidity (lactonic, free and total), and (3) indexes of honey freshness, typically evaluated by measuring the diastasic activity and HMF content. DE: reviews-; quality-; acidity-; HMF-; pH-; water-; activity-; honey-; stability-; bibliographies-; measurement-; electrical-conductivity; antimicrobial-properties ID: water-activity

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Kubis-I; Ingr-I
Effects inducing changes in hydroxymethylfurfural content in honey. OT: Vlivy pusobici na zmeny obsahu hydroxymethylfurfuralu v medu.
Czech-Journal-of-Animal-Science. 1998, 43: 8, 379-383; 11 ref. 1998

The effects of temperature and storage time on hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content in honey samples was investigated. HMF contents were relatively low at 50°C. HMF content increased with rising temperatures. At 63°C there was a statistically significant increase in HMF content, although levels did not exceed the approved limit. Heating to 82°C seriously impaired the honey samples. The HMF content was 10 times higher than the limit value. Not all samples exhibited identical reactions to overheating. The weakest reaction was observed in locust honey and the strongest in summer honey. HMF content did not increase during 12 months of sample storage in a cooler at 6°C. HMF content increased significantly during storage at 18°C, but did not exceed the approved limit. In 1995, rape honey HMF content was 0.03 mg/100 g in control samples, 0.05 mg/100 g at 50°C and 0.19 mg/100 g in samples heated to 61°C. Locust honey HMF contents were 0.007, 0.05 and 0.33 mg/100 g under the same conditions, respectively. Summer honey HMF values were 0.05, 0.07 and 0.21 mg/kg, respectively. In 1996, rape honey HMF contents were 0.001, 2.61 and 19.8 mg/100 g in the control, samples heated to 63°C, and then to 82°C, respectively. Values were 0.003, 1.17 and 13.94 mg/100 g in locust honey and 0.02, 3.36 and 24.72 mg/100 g in summer honey. HMF values after 1 year of storage at 6 and 18°C were 0.03 and 0.76, 0.009 and 0.54, and 0.04 and 0.58 mg/100 g for rape, locust and summer honey, respectively. DE: HM

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Rodrigues-ACL; Marchini-LC; Carvalho-CAL-de; de-Carvalho-CAL
Analyses of honey from Apis mellifera L. and Tetragonisca angustula collected in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. OT: Analises de mel de Apis mellifera L., 1758 e Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811) coletado em Piracicaba-SP.
Revista-de-Agricultura-Piracicaba. 1998, 73: 3, 255-262; 14 ref. 1998

Honey from the bees A. mellifera and T. angustula was collected in October 1996 at the University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil, and analysed for diastase [alpha-glucosidase], humidity, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), total sugars, reducing sugars, sucrose and colour. Despite both bee species being present in the same location during the period preceding collection of samples, the composition of their honey was very different. Values for alpha-glucosidase index, humidity, HMF content, total sugars, reducing sugars, sucrose content and absorbance of honey from A. mellifera were 10.9, 19.3%, 8.26 mg/kg, 76.26%, 70.15%, 5.90% and 0.342, respectively. Corresponding values for honey from T. angustula were 17.9, 26.1%, 4.99 mg/kg, 59.42%, 58.19%, 1.17% and 0.264. It is suggested that the sources visited and/or specific differences in the processes of transforming and storing honey are responsible for these differences. DE: sucrose-; sugars-; HMF-; colour-; honey-; alpha-glucosidase; humidity-; reducing-sugars; honey-bees OD: Tetragonisca-; Apis-mellifera GE: Brazil-; Sao-Paulo ID: Tetragonisca-angustula

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Singh-N; Bath-PK; Narpinder-Singh
Relationship between heating and hydroxymethylfurfural formation in different honey types.
Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology-Mysore. 1998, 35: 2, 154-156; 16 ref. 1998

Some HMF is formed upon heating of honey during normal processing to prevent granulation and fermentation; excessive HMF indicates either overheating or adulteration with invert syrup. Second-order polynomials were computed as regression models to describe the dependence of HMF formation on heating time (5-30 min) and temperature (65-95°C), for 3 types of honey (from Eucalyptus lanceolatus, Brassica juncea and Trifolium). Results suggest that the polynomials could be a useful tool for predicting and controlling HMF formation during processing and storage of honeys. DE: processing-; temperature-; duration-; heating-; HMF-; formation-; kinetics-; honey-; types-; Indian-mustard OD: Trifolium-; Eucalyptus-; Brassica-juncea GE: India- ID: Eucalyptus-lanceolatus

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Bogdanov-S CA: International Honey Commission.
Honey quality and international regulatory standards: review by the International Honey commission.
Bee-World. 1999, 80: 2, 61-69; 17 ref. 1999

International honey standards are specified in a European Honey Directive and in the Codex Alimentarius Standard for Honey, both of which are presently under revision. Present knowledge on the different quality criteria is reviewed. The standard drafts include standards and methods for the determination of the following quality factors: moisture, ash, acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural, apparent reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, diastase activity and water-insoluble matter. International honey standards for fructose/glucose content, the sucrose content and electrical conductivity are proposed. Also the use of other quality factors, such as invertase activity, proline and specific rotation, used in many countries, is also discussed. DE: honey-; legislation-; moisture-; acidity-; reducing-sugars; sucrose-; fructose-; glucose-; proline-; quality-; HMF- ID: alpha-glucosidase; beta-fructofuranosidase

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Costa-LSM; Albuquerque-MLS; Trugo-LC; Quinteiro-LMC; Barth-OM; Ribeiro-M; Maria-CAB-de; de-Maria-CAB
Determination of non-volatile compounds of different botanical origin Brazilian honeys.
Food-Chemistry. 1999, 65: 3, 347-352; 26 ref. 1999

The principal constituents of the non-volatile fraction of genuine Apis mellifera honey samples derived from 74 different floral types encountered in 4 Brazilian states (South (Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, Santa Catarina), Southeast (Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo), Northeast (Piaui, Ceara, Pernambuco, Paraiba) and Midwest (Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul)) were investigated and the levels of water, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), free proline, total acidity, diastase activity, fructose and glucose reported. The majority of the samples showed adequate water and HMF contents indicating the use of good practices by beekeepers in Brazil. Large variations in the proline content (389-520 mg/kg) were found in honey samples from the 4 regions studied. These findings are presumably due to the more intensive labour of the bees on the collected nectar with the addition of gland secretions. The high amount of diastase (40-120°G) found in some honey samples from the northeast region could be due to the visit of the bees to Manihot sp. (cassava) flour factories to collect starch-rich food, consequently increasing diastase activity in the honey. Xerotolerant yeasts may be responsible for higher total acidity and ratios below 1 for fructose/glucose found in some samples. Most of the analysed honey samples (82%) were within the limits of the European Codex Honey Standards and Brazilian legal regulations. DE: honey-; composition-; proline-; water-content; acidity-

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